There are lots of ways of doing references. In this section we'll look in detail at the most common way of doing them - the Harvard system. This is the system that's recommended by most schools and subject areas within Teesside University. These examples will also get you used to the basic principles of doing references. After that, it gets a lot easier. We'll look at references to books, articles, websites, newspapers, you name it. And at the end there are some links to other sites which look at different ways of doing references in detail.
The Teesside University standard for Harvard referencing is the same as in this book:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 9th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
There are copies in the University library (on Floor 2 at 808.02/PEA) and an online copy is available at http://ezproxy.tees.ac.uk/login?url=http://www.citethemrightonline.com/.
Should I always use Harvard?
Well, you might not get the choice. Your Programme Handbook or Module
Handbook might insist that you use a different method, so check this
carefully. There are many different alternative styles that you could use, e.g. 'APA' (American Psychological Association) or
'MLA' (The Modern Language Association).
Another method uses numbers in the text with the full reference given as a footnote or endnote. This method has several names, the most common being 'Numeric' or 'Vancouver' or ' Uniform'.
Here we're going to be concentrating on looking at the Harvard system. This way, you'll get familiar with the principles of doing references.
OK? Now, the next question is, what do Harvard references look like?