What do Harvard References Look Like?
Here's a short extract from an academic book on Media Studies:
"The approach to media discourse analysis used in this chapter was developed
by Bell (1991). It draws on elements from general frameworks of story
analysis, especially Labov's analysis of narratives of personal experience
told in conversation (Labov and Waletzky, 1967; Labov, 1972) as well as
from van Dijk's framework for analysing news discourse (1998b). The
analysis of time in news stories derives from Bell (1995b, 1996). The
frameworks used to analyse the structure of different kinds of stories
have a lot of their elements in common (Labov, 1972; Rumelhart, 1975;
van Dijk, 1988b)."
(Bell and Garrett, 1998, p. 67)
Let's pick out five things in detail:
(Labov and Waletzky, 1967) - this is the basic
Harvard reference. It refers to a book or article written by Labov
and Waletzky and published in 1967.
Bell (1991) - refers to a book or article published
in 1991 and written by somebody called Bell. The author's name isn't
in the brackets because it is mentioned immediately before in the
text. This is really only a style difference.
Bell (1995b) - the b indicates that the authors
will have references to more than one thing by Bell published in 1995,
and this refers to the second one.
(Labov, 1972; Rumelhart, 1975; van Dijk, 1988b)
- all these authors and the works referred to are relevant. And van
Dijk published more than one thing in 1988. Notice the use of the
semi-colons to separate the references from each other in the list.
(Bell and Garrett, 1998, p. 67) - It refers to the book which I am quoting, and the page where I
found the extract. If you are quoting directly or using ideas from a specific page or pages, you must include the page numbers.
I didn't include page numbers in the previous examples, because I was referring to whole books, not to particular pages within those books.
But there's a lot missing isn't there? We know the authors and the dates
but not the most important thing - the titles. How do you complete the